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mouse anti-beta Tubulin monoclonal antibody (4E4) 1222

$100.00$2,600.00

Antibody summary

  • Mouse monoclonal to beta Tubulin
  • Suitable for: WB, ICC/IF, IHC
  • Reacts with: human, mouse, rat
  • Isotype: IgG2a
  • 100 µg, 25 µg, 1 mg
SKU: 1222parent Categories: , Tags: , ,
Weight1 lbs
Dimensions9 × 5 × 2 in
host

mouse

isotype

IgG2a

clonality

monoclonal

concentration

1 mg/mL

applications

ICC/IF, IHC, WB

available sizes

1 mg, 100 µg, 25 µg

Available product – mouse anti-beta Tubulin monoclonal antibody (4E4) 1222

antibody
Database link:
human P07437
mouse P99024
rat P69897
Tested applications
WB,IHC,IHC,ICC/IF
Recommended dilutions
WB: 1:5000-1:10000, ICC/IF and IHC: 1:1000-1:5000
Immunogen
Pig brain tubulin preparation
Size and concentration
25, 100, 1000µg and 1 mg/mL
Form
liquid
Storage Instructions
2-8°C for short term, for longer term at -20°C. Avoid freeze / thaw cycles.
Storage buffer
PBS, 50% glycerol, 0.04% NaN3
Purity
affinity purified
Clonality
monoclonal
Isotype
IgG2a
Compatible secondaries
goat anti-mouse IgG, H&L chain specific, peroxidase conjugated polyclonal antibody 5486
goat anti-mouse IgG, H&L chain specific, biotin conjugated, Conjugate polyclonal antibody 2685
goat anti-mouse IgG, H&L chain specific, FITC conjugated polyclonal antibody 7854
goat anti-mouse IgG, H&L chain specific, peroxidase conjugated polyclonal antibody, crossabsorbed 1706
goat anti-mouse IgG, H&L chain specific, biotin conjugated polyclonal antibody, crossabsorbed 1716
goat anti-mouse IgG, H&L chain specific, FITC conjugated polyclonal antibody, crossabsorbed 1721
Isotype control
Mouse monocolonal IgG2a - Isotype Control
target relevance
Beta tubulin is a structural component of microtubules, beta-tubulin plays a fundamental role in maintaining cell shape, supporting intracellular transport, and facilitating cell division. Due to its stable expression levels and essential cellular functions, beta-tubulin has become widely recognized as a valuable loading control in various experimental techniques, such as Western blotting and immunoblotting. Its consistent presence in most eukaryotic cells ensures that its expression remains relatively constant, making it an ideal reference protein for normalizing and quantifying target protein levels accurately. This antibody can be used as a loading control when run alongside proteins of interest with different and resolvable molecular weights and ideally in combination with antibodies of same host and when using a secondary antibody.

Click for more on: loading controls and beta Tubulin
Protein names
Tubulin beta chain (Tubulin beta-5 chain)
Gene names
TUBB,TUBB TUBB5 OK/SW-cl.56
Protein family
Tubulin family
Mass
49671Da
Function
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules, a cylinder consisting of laterally associated linear protofilaments composed of alpha- and beta-tubulin heterodimers. Microtubules grow by the addition of GTP-tubulin dimers to the microtubule end, where a stabilizing cap forms. Below the cap, tubulin dimers are in GDP-bound state, owing to GTPase activity of alpha-tubulin.
Subellular location
Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton
Tissues
Ubiquitously expressed with highest levels in spleen, thymus and immature brain.
Structure
Heterodimer of alpha and beta chains (PubMed:26637975). A typical microtubule is a hollow water-filled tube with an outer diameter of 25 nm and an inner diameter of 15 nM. Alpha-beta heterodimers associate head-to-tail to form protofilaments running lengthwise along the microtubule wall with the beta-tubulin subunit facing the microtubule plus end conferring a structural polarity. Microtubules usually have 13 protofilaments but different protofilament numbers can be found in some organisms and specialized cells. Interacts with PIFO (PubMed:20643351). Interacts with DIAPH1 (PubMed:23325789). Interacts with MX1 (By similarity). May interact with RNABP10 (By similarity). Interacts with CFAP157 (By similarity). Nascent tubulin polypeptide interacts (via beta-tubulin MREI motif) with TTC5/STRAP; this interaction results in tubulin mRNA-targeted degradation (PubMed:31727855).
Post-translational modification
Some glutamate residues at the C-terminus are polyglutamylated, resulting in polyglutamate chains on the gamma-carboxyl group (PubMed:26875866, PubMed:28576883). Polyglutamylation plays a key role in microtubule severing by spastin (SPAST). SPAST preferentially recognizes and acts on microtubules decorated with short polyglutamate tails: severing activity by SPAST increases as the number of glutamates per tubulin rises from one to eight, but decreases beyond this glutamylation threshold (PubMed:26875866). Glutamylation is also involved in cilia motility (By similarity). ; Some glutamate residues at the C-terminus are monoglycylated but not polyglycylated due to the absence of functional TTLL10 in human. Monoglycylation is mainly limited to tubulin incorporated into cilia and flagella axonemes, which is required for their stability and maintenance. Flagella glycylation controls sperm motility (Probable) (PubMed:28576883). Both polyglutamylation and monoglycylation can coexist on the same protein on adjacent residues, and lowering glycylation levels increases polyglutamylation, and reciprocally (Probable) (PubMed:28576883). ; Phosphorylated on Ser-172 by CDK1 during the cell cycle, from metaphase to telophase, but not in interphase. This phosphorylation inhibits tubulin incorporation into microtubules.
Target Relevance information above includes information from UniProt accession : P07437
The UniProt Consortium

Data

ICC/IF-image-mouse-anti-beta Tubulin-monoclonal-antibody-4E4-1222
Immunofluorescence analysis of HeLa cells stained with mouse mAb to beta-tubulin, 1222, dilution 1:5,000 in green, and costained with chicken pAb to lamin A/C dilution 1:2,000, in red. Blue is DAPI staining of nuclear DNA. 1222 antibody produces strong staining of cytoplasmic microtubules, while the lamin A/C antibody specifically labels the nuclear membrane of these cells.
IHC-image-mouse-anti-beta Tubulin-monoclonal-antibody-4E4-1222
Chromogenic immunostaining of a 4% PFA fixed paraffin embedded rat midbrain section with mouse mAb to beta-tubulin, 1222, dilution 1:1,000, detected with DAB (brown) using the Vector Elite 8718C-HRP detection and reagents with citra buffer retrieval. Hematoxylin (blue) was used as the counterstain. 1222 antibody labels the cytoplasm of endothelium and neurons as well as in the neuropil. This antibody performs well in testing with both 4% PFA and standard NBF fixed tissues. Mouse select image for larger view.
WB-image-mouse-anti-beta Tubulin-monoclonal-antibody-4E4-1222
Western blot analysis of equal amounts of cell line and whole brain lysates using mouse mAb to beta-tubulin 1222, dilution 1:5,000 in green: [1] protein standard (red), [2] HEK293, [3] HeLa, [4] SH-SY5Y, [5] COS-1, [6] NIH-3T3, [7] C6 cells, [8] rat brain, and [9] mouse brain. Strong band at 50 kDa corresponds to the beta-tubulin proteins.

Publications

Published literature highly relevant to the biological target of this product and referencing this antibody or clone are retrieved from PubMed database provided by The United States National Library of Medicine at the National Institutes of Health.

pmidtitleauthorscitation
33981285Pancreas Optical Clearing and 3-D Microscopy in Health and DiabetesCampbell-Thompson M, Tang SC.Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2021 Apr 26;12:644826. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2021.644826. eCollection 2021.
27103327Microtubules: 50 years on from the discovery of tubulinBorisy G, Heald R, Howard J, Janke C, Musacchio A, Nogales E.Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2016 Apr 22;17(5):322-8. doi: 10.1038/nrm.2016.45.
26123245Physiologically relevant factors influence tau phosphorylation by leucine-rich repeat kinase 2Hamm M, Bailey R, Shaw G, Yen SH, Lewis J, Giasson BI.J Neurosci Res. 2015 Oct;93(10):1567-80. doi: 10.1002/jnr.23614. Epub 2015 Jun 30.
19671735Microtubule inhibitors: Differentiating tubulin-inhibiting agents based on mechanisms of action, clinical activity, and resistancePerez EA.Mol Cancer Ther. 2009 Aug;8(8):2086-95. doi: 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-09-0366. Epub 2009 Aug 11.
11441808Structural insight into microtubule functionNogales E.Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct. 2001;30:397-420. doi: 10.1146/annurev.biophys.30.1.397.
9428769Structure of the alpha beta tubulin dimer by electron crystallographyNogales E, Wolf SG, Downing KH.Nature. 1998 Jan 8;391(6663):199-203. doi: 10.1038/34465.

Protocols

relevant to this product
Western blot
IHC
ICC

Documents

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