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chicken anti-Tyrosine Hydroxylase polyclonal antibody 5799

$100.00$2,600.00

Antibody summary

  • Chicken polyclonal to Tyrosine Hydroxylase
  • Suitable for: WB, ICC/IF, IHC
  • Reacts with: human, mouse, rat
  • Isotype: IgY
  • 100 µg, 25 µg, 1 mg
SKU: 5799parent Categories: , Tags: , ,
Weight1 lbs
Dimensions9 × 5 × 2 in
host

chicken

isotype

IgY

clonality

polyclonal

concentration

1 mg/mL

applications

ICC/IF, IHC, WB

available sizes

1 mg, 100 µg, 25 µg

Available product – chicken anti-Tyrosine Hydroxylase polyclonal antibody 5799

antibody
Database link:
human P07101
mouse P24529
rat P04177
Tested applications
WB,IHC,IHC,ICC/IF
Recommended dilutions
WB: 1:50000 IF/ICC and IHC: 1:5000
Immunogen
Full length human TH expressed in and purified from E. coli.
Size and concentration
25, 100, 1000µg and 1 mg/mL
Form
liquid
Storage Instructions
2-8°C
Storage buffer
PBS, 50% glycerol, 0.04% NaN3
Purity
affinity purified
Clonality
polyclonal
Isotype
IgY
Compatible secondaries
goat anti-chicken IgY, H&L chain specific, peroxidase conjugated polyclonal antibody 1688
goat anti-chicken IgY, H&L chain specific, biotin conjugated polyclonal antibody 8036
goat anti-chicken IgY, H&L chain specific, FITC conjugated, Conjugated polyclonal antibody 4317
goat anti-chicken IgY, H&L chain specific, peroxidase conjugated polyclonal antibody, crossabsorbed 1708
goat anti-chicken IgY, H&L chain specific, biotin conjugated polyclonal antibody, crossabsorbed 1718
goat anti-chicken IgY, H&L chain specific, FITC conjugated polyclonal antibody, crossabsorbed 1723
Isotype control
Chicken polyclonal - Isotype Control
target relevance
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is an enzyme critical for the synthesis of catecholamines, including dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. In research, TH has emerged as a vital cell marker, particularly for dopaminergic neurons. Dopaminergic neurons play essential roles in the brain's reward and motor systems and are implicated in various neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. TH immunohistochemistry, aided by specific antibodies targeting TH, allows researchers to identify and visualize dopaminergic neurons and assess their distribution and density in brain tissues. Additionally, these antibodies enable the quantification of TH levels, serving as a valuable tool for studying changes in dopaminergic function under different experimental conditions or in disease states. Furthermore, TH antibodies aid in the identification and analysis of TH-expressing cells in non-neuronal tissues, like the adrenal gland.

Click for more on: cell markers and Tyrosine hydroxylase
Protein names
Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase (EC 1.14.16.2) (Tyrosine 3-hydroxylase) (TH)
Gene names
TH,TH TYH
Protein family
Biopterin-dependent aromatic amino acid hydroxylase family
Mass
58600Da
Function
Catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine to L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-Dopa), the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of cathecolamines, dopamine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline. Uses tetrahydrobiopterin and molecular oxygen to convert tyrosine to L-Dopa (PubMed:17391063, PubMed:1680128, PubMed:15287903, PubMed:8528210, Ref.18, PubMed:34922205, PubMed:24753243). In addition to tyrosine, is able to catalyze the hydroxylation of phenylalanine and tryptophan with lower specificity (By similarity). Positively regulates the regression of retinal hyaloid vessels during postnatal development (By similarity). ; [Isoform 5]: Lacks catalytic activity. ; [Isoform 6]: Lacks catalytic activity.
Catalytic activity
Reaction=(6R)-L-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin + L-tyrosine + O2 = (4aS,6R)-4a-hydroxy-L-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin + L-dopa; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:18201, ChEBI:CHEBI:15379, ChEBI:CHEBI:15642, ChEBI:CHEBI:57504, ChEBI:CHEBI:58315, ChEBI:CHEBI:59560; EC=1.14.16.2; Evidence=; PhysiologicalDirection=left-to-right; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:18202; Evidence=;
Pathway
Catecholamine biosynthesis; dopamine biosynthesis; dopamine from L-tyrosine: step 1/2.
Subellular location
Cytoplasm, perinuclear region Nucleus Cell projection, axon Cytoplasm Cytoplasmic vesicle, secretory vesicle, synaptic vesicle Note=When phosphorylated at Ser-19 shows a nuclear distribution and when phosphorylated at Ser-31 as well at Ser-40 shows a cytosolic distribution (By similarity). Expressed in dopaminergic axons and axon terminals.
Tissues
Mainly expressed in the brain and adrenal glands.
Structure
Homotetramer (Ref.18, PubMed:24947669). Interacts (when phosphorylated at Ser-19) with YWHAG; one YWHAG dimer bounds to one TH tetramer, this interaction may influence the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of other sites (PubMed:24947669).
Post-translational modification
Phosphorylated on Ser-19, Ser-62 and Ser-71 by several protein kinases with different site specificities. Phosphorylation at Ser-62 and Ser-71 leads to an increase of TH activity (PubMed:7901013). Phosphorylation at Ser-71 activates the enzyme and also counteracts the feedback inhibition of TH by catecholamines (PubMed:15287903). Phosphorylation of Ser-19 and Ser-62 triggers the proteasomal degradation of TH through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (By similarity). Phosphorylation at Ser-62 facilitates transport of TH from the soma to the nerve terminals via the microtubule network (PubMed:28637871). Phosphorylation at Ser-19 induces the high-affinity binding to the 14-3-3 protein YWHAG; this interaction may influence the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of other sites (PubMed:24947669). Ser-19 increases the phosphorylation at Ser-71 in a hierarchical manner, leading to increased activity (By similarity).
Target Relevance information above includes information from UniProt accession : P07101
The UniProt Consortium

Data

ICC/IF-image-chicken-anti-Tyrosine Hydroxylase-polyclonal-antibody-5799
Immunofluorescent analysis of rat brain section stained with chicken pAb to tyrosine hydroxylase, 5799, dilution 1:5,000, in green. The blue is Hoechst staining of nuclear DNA. 5799 antibody stains the dopaminergic TH-positive neurons and their processes of the substantia nigra.
IHC-image-chicken-anti-Tyrosine Hydroxylase-polyclonal-antibody-5799
Chromogenic immunostaining of a formalin fixed paraffin embedded rat brain stem sagittal section with chicken pAb to tyrosine hydroxylase, 5799, dilution 1:10,000, detected in DAB (brown) following the The sample was processed using our standard IHC protocol outlined here. Hematoxylin (blue) was used as the counterstain. The tyrosine hydroxylase antibody stains perikarya and processes of certain chatecholaminergic neuronal cells. Mouse select image for larger view.
FACS-image-chicken-anti-Tyrosine Hydroxylase-polyclonal-antibody-5799
Affinity purified 5799 conjugated with ALEXA647 reliably detects TH expressed in murine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Whole blood acquired from C57B6/J mice via cardiac puncture was diluted 1:1 in sterile PBS and layered on top of Ficoll-Histopaque (GE Healthcare, 17-1440-03) and centrifuged at 400g, room temperature, for 20 minutes with acceleration set to minimum and brakes off. Cells acquired from interface of Ficoll and whole blood were washed twice in sterile PBS, and immediately fixed on ice using the eBioscience Fixation/Permeablization kit (eBioscience, 88-8824-00) for 30 minutes, then washed twice with 1mL permeabilization buffer. Intracellular staining for TH was accomplished by addition of 2µL of affinity purified 5799 directly conjugated to Alexa647 in 100uL staining volume (1:50 dilution from stock antibody conjugate solution at 2.2mg/mL) and incubated at room temperature for 30 minutes. Following two washes in 1mL permeabilization buffer, data were immediately acquired on a Sony SP6800 Spectral Analyzer, and analyzed in a FCS Express 7 software (DeNovo) in the University of Florida ICBR cytometry lab. Data provided by Adithya Gopinath working in the lab of Habibeh Khoshbouei, University of FloridaClear separation of the positive sample (red) from negative control (black, chicken IgY plus anti-chicken Alexa647 conjugate) indicates clear staining and specificity of chicken anti-TH-647 for TH expressed in murine PBMCs, and shows suitability for flow cytometric analysis of murine PBMCs for TH expression. Further details about this interesting approach are found in Gopinath et al. (2020).
WB-image-chicken-anti-Tyrosine Hydroxylase-polyclonal-antibody-5799
Western blot analysis of different tissue lysates using chicken pAb to tyrosine hydroxylase, 5799, dilution 1:50,000 in green: [1] protein standard (red), [2] rat brain caudate/putmen region, [3] rat brain midbrain, [4] whole mouse brain and brain stem excluding cerebellum, and [5] segment of cow midbrain. The strong band at about 58kDa corresponds to the TH protein.

Publications

Published literature highly relevant to the biological target of this product and referencing this antibody or clone are retrieved from PubMed database provided by The United States National Library of Medicine at the National Institutes of Health.

pmidtitleauthorscitation
36710070Methamphetamine induces a low dopamine transporter expressing state without altering the total number of peripheral immune cellsGopinath A, Riaz T, Miller E, Phan L, Smith A, Syed O, Franks S, Martinez LR, Khoshbouei H.Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2023 Nov;133(5):496-507. doi: 10.1111/bcpt.13838. Epub 2023 Feb 16.
36260113Identification and characterization of novel abdominal and pelvic brown adipose depots in miceMesa AM, Medrano TI, Sirohi VK, Walker WH, Johnson RD, Tevosian SG, Adkin AM, Cooke PS.Adipocyte. 2022 Dec;11(1):616-629. doi: 10.1080/21623945.2022.2133415.
35672374DAT and TH expression marks human Parkinson's disease in peripheral immune cellsGopinath A, Mackie P, Hashimi B, Buchanan AM, Smith AR, Bouchard R, Shaw G, Badov M, Saadatpour L, Gittis A, Ramirez-Zamora A, Okun MS, Streit WJ, Hashemi P, Khoshbouei H.NPJ Parkinsons Dis. 2022 Jun 7;8(1):72. doi: 10.1038/s41531-022-00333-8.
31634479A novel approach to study markers of dopamine signaling in peripheral immune cellsGopinath A, Doty A, Mackie PM, Hashimi B, Francis M, Saadatpour L, Saha K, Shaw G, Ramirez-Zamora A, Okun MS, Streit WJ, Khoshbouei H.J Immunol Methods. 2020 Jan;476:112686. doi: 10.1016/j.jim.2019.112686. Epub 2019 Oct 18.
21176768Tyrosine hydroxylase and regulation of dopamine synthesisDaubner SC, Le T, Wang S.Arch Biochem Biophys. 2011 Apr 1;508(1):1-12. doi: 10.1016/j.abb.2010.12.017. Epub 2010 Dec 19.
17408759Dopamine neuron systems in the brain: an updateBjörklund A, Dunnett SB.Trends Neurosci. 2007 May;30(5):194-202. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2007.03.006. Epub 2007 Apr 3.
9626667Tyrosine hydroxylase and Parkinson's diseaseHaavik J, Toska K.Mol Neurobiol. 1998 Jun;16(3):285-309. doi: 10.1007/BF02741387.
8987151Differential distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase fibers on small and large neurons in layer II of anterior cingulate cortex of schizophrenic brainBenes FM, Todtenkopf MS, Taylor JB.Synapse. 1997 Jan;25(1):80-92. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2396(199701)25:1<80::AID-SYN10>3.0.CO;2-2.
8514911Midbrain dopaminergic neurons (nuclei A8, A9, and A10): three-dimensional reconstruction in the ratGerman DC, Manaye KF.J Comp Neurol. 1993 May 15;331(3):297-309. doi: 10.1002/cne.903310302.
8101641Four isoforms of tyrosine hydroxylase are expressed in human brainLewis DA, Melchitzky DS, Haycock JW.Neuroscience. 1993 May;54(2):477-92. doi: 10.1016/0306-4522(93)90267-j.
1349211Tyrosine hydroxylase-like (TH) immunoreactivity in Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's diseaseTorack RM, Morris JC.J Neural Transm Park Dis Dement Sect. 1992;4(2):165-71. doi: 10.1007/BF02251479.
234988Cellular localization of tyrosine hydroxylase by immunohistochemistryPickel VM, Joh TH, Field PM, Becker CG, Reis DJ.J Histochem Cytochem. 1975 Jan;23(1):1-12. doi: 10.1177/23.1.234988.

Protocols

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Western blot
IHC
ICC

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